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Manganese Could Be the Secret Behind Truly Mass-Market EVs



Most automakers are dying to sell you—and the world—an electric car. But they’re up against the challenge of our global-warming time: dauntingly tight supplies of both batteries and the ethically sourced raw materials required to make them.

Tesla and Volkswagen are among the automakers who see manganese—element No. 25 on the periodic table, situated between chromium and iron—as the latest, alluringly plentiful metal that may make both batteries and EVs affordable enough for mainstream buyers.

That’s despite the dispiriting history of the first (and only) EV to use a high-manganese battery, the original Nissan Leaf, beginning in 2011. But with the industry needing all the batteries it can get, improved high-manganese batteries could carve out a niche, perhaps as a mid-priced option between lithium-iron phosphate chemistry, and primo nickel-rich batteries in top luxury and performance models.

“We need tens, maybe hundreds of millions of tons, ultimately. So the materials used to produce these batteries need to be common materials, or you can’t scale.”
—Elon Musk

Elon Musk made waves at the opening ceremony of Tesla Gigafactory Berlin, when asked his opinion on graphene in cells: “I think there’s an interesting potential for manganese,” Musk countered.

Regarding raw minerals, he underlined the ongoing industry flight from cobalt and now nickel: “We need tens, maybe hundreds of millions of tons, ultimately. So the materials used to produce these batteries need to be common materials, or you can’t scale,” Musk said.

At Volkswagen’s live-streamed “Power Day” in March—a seeming hat-tip to Tesla’s “Battery Day” spectacle—CEO Herbert Diess set off his own Muskian frenzy by announcing VW would build a half-dozen gigafactories in Europe by 2030, with a total of 240 gigawatt-hours of capacity. VW is already building EV factories in Tennessee and China. VW, despite its EVs outselling Tesla in Europe, is under intense competitive pressure from Tesla, and in the Chinese market where VW underperforms. The global giant is determined to cut its battery costs by half in entry-level models, and by 30 percent in mid-priced cars.

To get there, VW unveiled a versatile “unified cell” that can use multiple chemistries in a standardized prismatic design. Diess said about 80 percent of VW’s new prismatic batteries would spurn pricey nickel and cobalt in favor of cheaper, more-plentiful cathode materials—including potentially manganese.

VW’s aggressive strategy to move production of prismatic batteries in-house—the same format built by China’s Contemporary Amperex Technology Co., Limited (CATL), which supplies both VW and Tesla—blindsided its current suppliers of pouch-style batteries, South Korea’s LG Energy Solutions and SK Innovation. (VW tried to smooth the waters by saying it would honor existing battery contracts.)

So why this endless mixing-and-matching of formats and cathodes? And why manganese? It all hinges on what Musk and other experts cite as the looming, limiting factor in accelerating the EV revolution: the lagging rate of both battery production and the mining and processing of their raw materials.

In Berlin, Musk suggested the world will need 300 terawatt-hours of annual battery production to realize a full transition from fossil-fueled cars. That’s 100 times what Tesla projects it can produce by 2030, even with its own massive expansion of capacity. Nickel-rich batteries alone won’t get us there, despite currently unmatched energy density and performance. Other materials are required, with an ethical, diverse, uninterrupted pipeline to boot, even if, like manganese or lithium-iron phosphate—the flavor of the moment for EVs—the resulting batteries demand some compromises.

“I can see the logic, where if you can get it to a reasonable energy density, manganese becomes this in-between thing.”
—Venkat Srinivisan, Argonne Laboratories

“The higher number of minerals that go into a battery is a good thing,” said Venkat Srinivisan, director of the Argonne Collaborative Center for Energy Storage Science (ACCESS).

As a cathode material, manganese is abundant, safe, and stable. But it has never approached the energy density or life cycle of nickel-rich batteries, Srinivisan cautions. Buyers of early Nissan Leafs might concur: Nissan, with no suppliers willing or able to deliver batteries at scale back in 2011, was forced to build its own lithium manganese oxide batteries with a molecular jungle-gym-like “spinel” design. Those energy-poor packs brought just 24 kilowatt-hours of storage and a 117-kilometer (73-mile) driving range. Even that piddling storage and range rapidly degraded, especially in the southwestern United States and other searing climates, leaving customers howling. (It didn’t help that Nissan eschewed a thermal-management system for the battery.) A “Lizard” battery in 2014 with a modified manganese chemistry boosted capacity to 40 kWh, but still suffered short life spans.

Srinivisan said the story of EVs in the United States has been one of insatiable demand for power and driving range, which demanded the highest-energy batteries. That meant cobalt, typically a by-product of nickel and copper mining, and among the priciest battery elements. Cobalt production is also dominated by the Democratic Republic of Congo, which is linked to child labor in mines and other human rights abuses. Low-cobalt batteries have been the response.

“Everyone is thinking about substitutions for nickel and cobalt and how to recycle these things,” Srinivisan says.

General Motors and LG Energy Solutions’ pouch-style Ultium cells—which I recently tested for the first time in the GMC Hummer EV—use a nickel cobalt manganese aluminum chemistry that reduces cobalt content by more than 70 percent. With 200 kWh in a double-stacked cell sandwich—twice the size of Tesla’s biggest battery—the reborn Hummer combines a 529-km (329-mile) range with tri-motor propulsion, 1,000 horsepower, and a 3.0-second explosion to 60 miles per hour in its WTF (“Watts to Freedom”) mode. That battery, by far the largest ever shoehorned into an EV, also contributes 1,315 kilograms to the Hummer’s gargantuan 4,082-kg curb weight. (With GM gearing up mass production in Detroit, the Hummer might cause a battery shortage all on its own.)

As with Tesla’s best cells, GM’s cells use only small amounts of manganese to stabilize structures, not as a main cathode material.

According to the global materials and recycling company Umicore, more than 90 percent of manganese is mined for iron and stainless-steel production, with less than 1 percent going into batteries.

The next popular cathode mineral has been nickel, with a more diverse supply than Congolese cobalt, but hardly immune from geopolitical concerns. Global nickel stockpiles were already dwindling before Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February. Investors and traders got antsy over potential bans or interruptions of metals from Russia, which produces about 17 percent of the world’s high-purity nickel. In March, nickel prices doubled virtually overnight, briefly topping US $100,000 per tonne for the first time, spurring the London Metal Exchange to suspend trading during the wild run-up.

For all these reasons—commodity prices, politics, ethics, security, shortages, long-term strategy, and hedging of bets—the industry is embarking on a diversification strategy, a smorgasbord of solutions. Or at least until some future Nobel winner comes up with something to replace lithium-ion entirely.

For the fickle automaker, even nickel is on the outs—at least among those focused on China, or on modest-range, more-affordable EVs. Tesla, VW, Ford, Chinese companies, and others are rapidly switching to lithium-iron phosphate (LFP) chemistries—invented in the 1990s and until recently viewed as yesterday’s news—for mainstream or commercial models. These batteries require no nickel or cobalt, just abundant iron and phosphate. Musk has confirmed a “long-term switch” to LFP for entry-level cars (including the Model 3) or energy storage.

High-manganese batteries being eyeballed by Musk and VW would also use less nickel, and zero cobalt. They appear affordable: According to analysts at Roskill cited at Power Day, a lithium nickel manganese oxide chemistry could reduce cathode costs by 47 percent per kilowatt-hour relative to nickel-rich designs. That has VW mulling manganese as a potential fit for mainstream models, with LFP for bottom-rung vehicles or markets, and bespoke high-performance packs for the likes of Porsche, Audi, Bentley, or Lamborghini.

“I can see the logic, where if you can get it to a reasonable energy density, manganese becomes this in-between thing,” Srinivisan says. Automakers might offset manganese’s lower cathode costs with slightly enlarged batteries, to bring range closer to par with nickel-rich designs.

Back in 2020, at Tesla’s Battery Day, Musk expressed optimism about the mineral:

“It is relatively straightforward to do a cathode that’s two-thirds nickel and one-third manganese, which will allow us to make 50 percent more cell volume with the same amount of nickel,” Musk said.

With Musk still struggling to bring his large-format 4680 cylindrical cell to market—now well behind schedule—experts caution that the technical challenges aren’t so straightforward. High-manganese batteries have yet to demonstrate commercial viability.

But the epic scale of the challenge has automakers and battery makers working the labs and scouring the globe for materials as common as dirt, not precious as gold.

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Chromebook 101: how to change your Chrome OS channels and get unreleased features



You might not know it from glancing at a Chromebook, but Google’s Chrome OS is in a constant state of evolution.

The operating system receives minor updates every two to three weeks and major releases every six weeks. And, at any given moment, Google’s staff is working on features and software enhancements that most people won’t see for a matter of weeks — or months.

Here’s a little secret, though: if you’re feeling adventurous, you can gain access to those unreleased enhancements. All it takes is the flip of a virtual switch in your Chromebook’s settings, and you’ll have all sorts of interesting new options at your fingertips.

First, it’s important to understand exactly what’s involved so you can make an educated decision about which setup makes the most sense for you.

Understanding the Chrome OS channels

Chrome OS actually exists in four separate development channels. The software you see on your Chromebook varies considerably depending on which channel you choose:

  • The Stable channel is the polished and ready for prime time version of the software that all devices use by default.
  • The Beta channel is updated weekly and receives new features about a month ahead of its Stable sibling.
  • The Developer channel is updated as frequently as twice a week and sees stuff that’s actively being worked on and has undergone only a small amount of testing.
  • Finally, the Canary channel is what Google describes as the “bleeding edge” Chrome OS path — a channel that receives daily updates prior to any widespread testing and can be accessed only by a Chromebook that’s switched into a special developer mode (which, somewhat confusingly, has nothing to do with the Developer channel).

The Stable channel is the safest option and what the vast majority of people should use — particularly those who need to know their computers will always work flawlessly without any hiccups or unexpected glitches.

If you’re feeling adventurous and don’t mind a bit of a risk, the Beta channel is a good way to get a peek at unreleased features without too much instability. The odds of running into something funky are certainly higher than with Stable, but, by and large, elements in Beta are fairly well-developed and just in the final phases of testing.

Most day-to-day users would be well advised to stay away from the Developer channel since it receives updates as they’re built and is quite likely to contain bugs. And, as for the Canary channel, if you’re not sure whether you ought to be using it, the answer is probably no.

Changing your Chrome OS channel

Once you’ve decided which channel you want to try, here’s how to make the switch:

  • Open your Chromebook’s settings.
  • Click About Chrome OS in the menu on the left, then click Additional details.

Click About Chrome OS in the menu on the left, then click Additional details.

  • Look for the category Channel and click the Change channel button. That’ll cause a pop-up to appear that lets you select the Stable, Beta, or Developer channel. (Canary, remember, is available only if your device is in Developer mode — a level of access that opens the door to more advanced forms of OS modification but also disables some of the software’s standard layers of protection. It requires several extra steps to enable and, again, isn’t advisable for most Chromebook users.)

Change channel menu

Choose the Stable, Beta, or Developer channel.

  • Click the channel you want, then click the blue Change channel confirmation button that appears.
  • Click the left-facing arrow at the top of the screen to get back to the About Chrome OS page. When you see the Restart button appear near the top of the page (it may take a minute or two), click it.

About Chrome OS page with Restart button

Hit the Restart button to complete the change.

And that’s it: as soon as your Chromebook finishes restarting, you’ll be on your new channel with all your accounts, files, and preferences in place just like you left them.

If you ever decide you want to move back to the Stable channel, repeat that same process and select Stable.

Change channel box with “Change channel and Powerwash” button.

If you change back to Stable, you’ll have to Powerwash your system.

Just note that moving in that direction — from a higher channel to a less experimental one — generally requires you to Powerwash your Chromebook. Powerwash means all of your information and data will be erased, and you’ll have to sign in anew and start over.

About ChromeOS box

Hit the Restart and reset button to finish the process of restoring the Stable channel.

The one exception: if your Chromebook is connected to a work- or school-based G Suite account, your data won’t be deleted and the change won’t take place immediately. Instead, you’ll have to wait until the lower channel catches up to the higher one in version number, which could take anywhere from a few weeks to a few months.

Update May 20th, 2022, 9:30AM ET: This article was originally published on October 15th, 2019, and has been updated to account for changes in the OS.

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HP refreshes Spectre x360 laptop with Intel 12th-gen and Ryzen 5000 chips, Intel Arc GPU, beefed up webcam, and a quieter fan, starting at $1,650 (Scharon Harding/Ars Technica)



Scharon Harding / Ars Technica:

HP refreshes Spectre x360 laptop with Intel 12th-gen and Ryzen 5000 chips, Intel Arc GPU, beefed up webcam, and a quieter fan, starting at $1,650  —  HP Spectre laptops try out Intel discrete graphics, boosted webcams, new hues.  —  HP has revamped its Spectre x360 lineup of convertible …

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What Tools Do You Need to Wire Your Home for Ethernet?




DIY projects can be fun and rewarding, or they can be complete nightmares. Having the right tools for the job help ensure that a project doesn’t turn into a terrible time. Here are some tools you’ll probably need to run your own Ethernet cables.

A Bit About Safety

Ethernet cabling — usually CAT 5e, CAT 6, or CAT 6a in April 2022 — isn’t high voltage, and shouldn’t be attached anything that can push a lot of current, either. That means it isn’t really dangerous in and of itself, if used as-intended.

That said, there are some precautions you should always take while working around the AC power lines in your home, or putting holes in the structural components of your house, including when you’re installing Ethernet cables.


Always shut off power at the breaker box. If you’re running an Ethernet line through the wall from Room A to B, be absolutely sure that the breakers for both rooms are off.

To be completely sure, grab a lamp, and verify that the power to the rooms is actually off by plugging it into the outlets in the room.

Flip the lights in the room to the “On” position as well, and make sure none of them work. Lights, fans, and other things like that are often run on separate electrical lines from the outlets on your walls.

Drilling Holes

All Ethernet cables should be placed as far from the AC power lines in your house as is reasonably possible. The National Electric Code (NEC) requires unshielded Ethernet cables be a minimum of 8 inches away from any AC wiring. Follow this rule even for shielded cable — it won’t do you any harm.

AC electricity produces a magnetic field that can interfere with the signals running along your Ethernet cable, or even induce harmful voltages in the Ethernet cable.

Be sure to make the hole in your stud (or other framing member) only as big as it needs to be to accommodate the wires you’re running. Don’t make a hole larger with a diameter larger than 40% of the width of the framing member. If you need to route multiple wires, make multiple holes that are vertically separated by at least a few inches. Try to put the hole in the middle of the stud — if you put it too close to an edge, a screw or nail could easily pierce your Ethernet cable.

And, as always, wear eye protection.

Ethernet Cable Anatomy

All Ethernet cables are made up of 8 wires (four pairs) that are color-coded. They are: Orange and white/orange, blue and white/blue, brown and white/brown, and green and white/green.

Zakhar Mar/

Each colored pair is twisted together to help reduce noise and interference, which helps ensure that you get the maximum performance possible. Some Ethernet cables include a special shielding that sits between the plastic sheathing, usually called the jacket, and the twisted pairs inside to further reduce interference.

A Drill and the Right Bits

Ethernet cabling can be installed in conduit, raceway, or directly through the studs in your walls. One tool you’ll definitely need — irrespective of how you install it — is a good drill. You can get any drill (not an Impact Driver!) you want, but you can’t go wrong with DeWalt or Milwaukee.  Their top-of-the-line tools do command a premium price—but, like with most high-end tools, they’ll last for a very long time if you take care of them.

Through the Studs

You’ll need a drill with a reasonable amount of horsepower (literally) if you want to easily bore through a bunch of studs. The flexibility of a wireless drill is also great in this situation — having to contend with a cord can be annoying.

You’ll need the rights bits, too. Auger bits and spade (paddle) bits are popular choices for this, but some people use hole saws as well. Spade bits will be less expensive, but they tend to produce messier holes and they’re a bit harder to keep straight. Auger bits will stay straight more easily, and they almost always produce neater holes.

Note: If you go shopping for auger bits, make sure you get the kind designed for wood, not for soil. They have the same name but are completely different.

Everything Else

If you’re installing raceway, conduit, or doing anything else, you’ll probably need a few different phillips and flat head bits. You don’t really need anything special, though. This set from Dewalt will work. Any set you can buy at your local hardware store will work just fine, too.

Wire Cutters

You need to be able to cut your Ethernet cables to the correct length. Most every crimping tool will have a pair of cutters that will go through Ethernet cables without a problem. A dedicated pair of wire cutters are well worth it if you’re going to take on other home improvement projects in the future, however.

There a number of high-quality cutting pliers available, but the J2000-48s from Klein Tools are great for general-purpose cutting tasks. They’ll go right through any kind of wire you need to cut in your average DIY project.

A Punch Down Tool

Most Ethernet wall panels will have multiple sockets, or jacks. Each socket is connected to the Ethernet cable running in or on your wall by pushing each colored wire into a small groove with tiny metal blades inside. The metal blades slice through the insulation around the wire, and the blade is “punched down” into direct contact with the conductor in the wire. The blade itself is connected to the pins in the Ethernet jack. Then when you plug an Ethernet cable — like from your computer or TV — into the jack, the signal travels from the pin in the jack, to the blade, and then into the Ethernet cable in your wall.

Twisted pairs inserted into ethernet socket.
Anastasia T/

You don’t really need to buy a special punch down tool if you’re only doing one or two sockets. Most of the kits you buy at your local big-box hardware store will include a plastic punch down tool that will get the job done. You can even use your fingers or a small flathead screwdriver if you’ve got steady hands and are careful.

It is a different story if you plan on doing a whole bunch of them. Doing a dozen sockets means punching down and trimming about 100 tiny little wires — it is already tedious work, and doing it without the right tool makes it way worse. A good punch down tool will easily push the wire into place and trim the excess wire off the end, so you don’t have to do it with a razor or knife.

A punch down tool in use.
Nick Beer/

Klein manufactures a screwdriver, the VCV001-081, that can take multiple bits, including a punch down tool. It also has Phillips and flat-head attachments that match the standard screw sizes you’ll find in household electrical boxes and plates.

A Crimp Tool

If you’re putting Ethernet cabling into your home, you’ll need to have a router somewhere, and you might want to plug the Ethernet cables directly in the router rather than ending your run in a panel and then running patch cables between the wall panel and your router.

RELATED: How to Crimp Your Own Custom Ethernet Cables of Any Length

RJ45 plugs (the plug you’re familiar with on Ethernet cables) come in two basic variants: pass-through and non-pass-through, and which you use determines what kind of crimp tool you need.

When you attach a normal RJ45 connector to CAT cable, you need to trim the jacket back to expose the right amount of length wire so the twisted pairs can seat fully in the connector, while retaining enough of the jacket so that the connector can clamp down on the jacket when crimped. It is fairly easy to mess up, and getting the twisted pairs to go into the connector evenly takes some practice to do reliably.

Pass-through connectors make everything about that process a bit easier. You don’t need to worry about getting the jacket cut back to exactly the right length, and you don’t have to worry about making sure your wires go in perfectly straight — as long as they make it through the end of the plug, you can gently pull on them so they’re all even.

Pass Through RJ45
Klein Tools

There are crimper tools specifically designed to work with pass-through connectors. The major difference between a pass-through crimper and a regular crimper is the addition of a blade to trim the excess wire off the end of the RJ45.

You can use a regular crimping tool with a pass-through RJ45 plug, but you’ll need to trim the extra wire off. You can do that with a razor or a very fine pair of flush cutters. On the other hand, every pass-through crimping tool is fully compatible with non-pass-through RJ45 connectors.

The VDV226-011 is a regular crimping tool from Klein that works reliably. If you want to use pass-through connectors, Klein makes the VDV226-110.


You will need a set of screwdrivers if you don’t have some already. The faceplates of the Ethernet panel usually attach with a small flathead screw, and some of the boxes (the things that attach inside of the wall) use screws to clamp into place.

If you’re looking to buy something top of the line, Wera and Wiha are consistently ranked among the best you can buy. The good news is that — as long as you take care of them — they’ll probably last for the rest of your life. The downside is that they do command a premium price point.

Those options might be overkill if you don’t plan on a lot of DIY projects in the future. Realistically, any set of screwdrivers from your local hardware store will work just fine for this project.

There are screwdrivers that have interchangeable bits. Some of these, like the one we recommend from Klein, even have the Ethernet punch down tool built into them. If you have no other use for screwdrivers besides installing Ethernet panels, just get the all-in-one tool.

A Razor

A razor might seem like an odd addition to this list, but they can be handy. Most crimping tools also include a special stripping tool to remove the jacket from the Ethernet cable and expose the twisted pairs. Unfortunately, they don’t usually work very well — it is extremely easy to cut too deep and nick the twisted pair underneath.

A razor, however, is a lot easier to carefully control. You can very gently cut part of the way through the jacket of the Ethernet cable and then pull it off. You can also cut the wire to the precise length you want, which might make it easier to get them into an RJ45 connector or the slots on a wall socket.

Single Edge Razor Blade

A simple, no-frills, single edged razor. It’ll go through the jacket of an Ethernet cable (or any other wire) without an issue.

Fishing Rods, Fishing Tape, and Pulling Ethernet Cable

Unfortunately, it is difficult to say specifically what tools will be necessary to actually get the wire into place. If you’re working with a gutted room or a completely gutted house, then you might not need anything at all — you can probably just use your hands, though a fishing rod (sometimes called a pull or push rod) would be extremely useful if you’re going between floors.

Fishing Rods

If you’re working with completely finished walls that are filled with insulation, and you’re not running ethernet through conduit, you will definitely need a fishing rod. A fishing rod is a narrow piece of fiberglass (or other non-conductive, flexible material) that you can use to force Ethernet cable up or down a wall, or across a ceiling, even if you’re pushing through insulation. Fishing rods come in different lengths, and you can also get them with different levels of flexibility.

If you have no idea what kind you need, this mid-flex 25-foot fishing rod manufactured by Klein is a good all-around option.

Tip: Some fishing rods glow in the dark. It sounds a bit silly, but being able to see it while you’re peering into a small hole in the wall can be extremely useful. If you don’t get the rod we recommended, you should still try to get one that glows.

Fishing Tape

Fishing tape is useful if you need to move Ethernet cable through existing conduit or raceway, large empty spaces (line in an attic, above the insulation, or in an interior wall), or even through loose insulation. You will probably have more trouble forcing it through insulation than a fishing rod, but fishing tape is also a lot more flexible. For example, fishing tape is probably going to be easier to use than a fishing rod if you have to get wire around a corner.

This 25-foot fishing tool from Klein is great for most home projects, and the tapered tip makes a noticeable difference when using the tool — it snags significantly less.

Pull Line

If you might ever replace the Ethernet cable you’re installing, or add another line between the same places, you absolutely need to leave pull line in place. It’ll save you a ton of time later.

A pull line is exactly what it sounds like — you use it to pull new or additional Ethernet cables where you’ve already run one cable. Attach the pull line to the first Ethernet cable you put through, and then tie it off at the box, out of the way. If you have room, you can make the line twice as long as the cable’s run; that way, when you need to move a new line, you can just pull the pull line back and forth without having to worry about losing an end in a wall!

Any string will do, but ideally you want to use something that won’t mold, rot, snag, or rip easily. You can use heavy fishing line in a pinch, but there are plenty of specialty products available from manufacturers like Klein or Southwire.

Klein Tools 56325 Fish Rod Set

An excellent general purpose rod for fishing wire through walls and ceilings. It is long enough for almost any DIY Ethernet cabling job, and isn’t too stiff.

Miscellaneous Items


You should label all of the Ethernet cables, or at least label them by panel or room. It isn’t strictly necessary, but it’ll save you time if you ever need to troubleshoot. Something basic like these colored adhesive tags would work fine.

Cable Management

Most residential applications don’t involve enough cables to warrant a cable comb, but it is still good to try and be organized. If nothing else, keeping your cables tied together while pushing or pulling them through holes in studs will prevent you from driving yourself crazy. You can secure cables together most any way you want, but there are three popular options: lacing tape, zip ties, and velcro straps.

It doesn’t really matter which you use, it just comes down to personal preference. Zip ties are the easiest to use, but they’re prone to snagging when you pull them through holes. Lacing tape is the most difficult to use, but will pull more easily. Velcro is extremely easy to put on and take off if you need to adjust something later, but tends to snag if you’re pulling a whole bundle of cable.

Velcro Straps (3/4 inch wide)

The Velcro Straps are 3/4s of an inch wide. They present a happy middle ground as Ethernet fasteners go, and they can also be used to help contain the rat’s nest behind your TV or PC.

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